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Scent marking involves urine, feces, and anal gland scents. This is more effective at advertising territory than howling and is often used in combination with scratch marks.
Wolves increase their rate of scent marking when they encounter the marks of wolves from other packs.
Lone wolves will rarely mark, but newly bonded pairs will scent mark the most. Such markers can last for two to three weeks,  and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals.
Wolves communicate to anticipate what their pack mates or other wolves might do next. Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do in confrontations, rather barking a few times and then retreating from a perceived danger.
Wolves are monogamous , mated pairs usually remaining together for life. Should one of the pair die, another mate is found quickly.
Females are capable of producing pups every year, one litter annually being the average. Dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period.
When building dens, females make use of natural shelters like fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation.
Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade.
On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with one to three openings. It typically faces southwards where it can be better warmed by sunlight exposure, and the snow can thaw more quickly.
Resting places, play areas for the pups, and food remains are commonly found around wolf dens. The odor of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds like magpies and ravens.
Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways. The gestation period lasts 62—75 days with pups usually being born in the spring months or early summer in very cold places such as on the tundra.
Young females give birth to four to five young, and older females from six to eight young and up to The milk canines erupt after one month.
Pups first leave the den after three weeks. At one-and-a-half months of age, they are agile enough to flee from danger. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young.
Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of three to four weeks. They have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: during this period, a pup's weight can increase nearly 30 times.
Actual fights to establish hierarchy usually occur at five to eight weeks of age. This is in contrast to young coyotes and foxes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behaviour.
Single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs; single wolves have occasionally been observed to kill large prey such as moose, bison and muskoxen unaided.
The optimal pack size for hunting elk is four wolves, and for bison a large pack size is more successful.
As well as their physical adaptations for hunting hoofed mammals, wolves possess certain behavioural, cognitive, and psychological adaptations to assist with their hunting lifestyle.
Wolves are excellent learners that match or outperform domestic dogs. They can use gaze to focus attention on where other wolves are looking.
This is important because wolves do not use vocalization when hunting. In laboratory tests, they appear to exhibit insight, foresight, understanding, and the ability to plan.
To survive, wolves must be able to solve two problems—finding a prey animal, then confronting it. Wolves move around their territory when hunting, using the same trails for extended periods.
After snowfalls, wolves find their old trails and continue using them. These follow the banks of rivers, the shorelines of lakes, through ravines overgrown with shrubs, through plantations, or roads and human paths.
During the winter, a pack will commence hunting in the twilight of early evening and will hunt all night, traveling tens of kilometres.
Sometimes hunting large prey occurs during the day. During the summer, wolves generally tend to hunt individually, ambushing their prey and rarely giving pursuit.
The wolf usually travels at a loping pace, placing one of its paws directly in front of the other. This adaptation allows wolves to locate prey within hours, but it can take days to find prey that can be killed without great risk.
Moose and deer live singly in the summer. Caribou live in herds of thousands which presents dangers for wolves. Elk live in small herds and these are a safer target.
A wolf carries its head at the same level as its back, lifting it only when alert. Their vision is as good as a human's, and they can smell prey at least 2.
A human can detect the smell of a forest fire over the same distance from downwind. The wolf's sense of smell is at least comparable to that of the domestic dog, which is at least ten thousand times more sensitive than a human's.
When hunting large gregarious prey, wolves will try to isolate an individual from its group. Most large prey have developed defensive adaptations and behaviours.
Wolves have been killed while attempting to bring down bison , elk, moose, muskoxen, and even by one of their smallest hoofed prey, the white-tailed deer.
With smaller prey like beaver , geese, and hares, there is no risk to the wolf. Generally, bison, elk, and moose will stand their ground, then the wolves must struggle with them to bring them down.
Often caribou and deer will flee, but sometimes deer also make a stand. When wolves encounter prey that flees, they give chase. The speed of sprinting prey is closely related to the speed of their main predators.
Most wolf prey will try to run to water, where they will either escape or be better placed to attempt to ward off the wolves. The wolf must give chase and gain on its fleeing prey, slow it down by biting through thick hair and hide, and then disable it enough to begin feeding.
The wolf leaps at its quarry and tears at it. One wolf was observed being dragged for dozens of metres attached to the hind leg of a moose; another was seen being dragged over a fallen log while attached to a bull elk's nose.
The most common point of wolf attacks on moose is the upper hind legs. Although blood loss, muscle damage, and tendon exposure may occur, there is no evidence of hamstringing.
Attacks also occur on the fleshy nose, the back and sides of the neck, the ears, and the perineum. With medium-sized prey, such as roe deer or sheep , wolves kill by biting the throat, severing nerve tracks and the carotid artery , thus causing the animal to die within a few seconds to a minute.
With small, mouselike prey, wolves leap in a high arc and immobilize it with their forepaws. Such instances are common with domestic animals, but rare with wild prey.
In the wild, surplus killing occurs primarily during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep thus impeding the movements of prey  or during the denning period, when den bound wolves require a ready supply of meat.
Once prey is brought down, wolves begin to feed excitedly, ripping and tugging at the carcass in all directions, and bolting down large chunks of it.
When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups. They usually work the hardest at killing prey, and may rest after a long hunt and allow the rest of the family to eat undisturbed.
Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transports them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace.
Wolves typically commence feeding by consuming the larger internal organs, like the heart , liver , lungs , and stomach lining.
The kidneys and spleen are eaten once they are exposed, followed by the muscles. Viral diseases carried by wolves include: rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , and canine coronavirus.
Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals. Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska.
The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.
Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely does not cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviours.
The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include: brucellosis , Lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis ,  listeriosis and anthrax.
While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to significantly affect wolf populations.
Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death.
Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste.
Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have killed two wolf pups in Canada.
Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites ; those in the former Soviet Union have been recorded to carry at least 50 species.
Wolves can spread them to dogs, which in turn can carry the parasites to humans. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.
Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites.
The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is the mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei ,  though they rarely develop full-blown mange , unlike foxes.
Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include chewing lice , sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis.
Endoparasites known to infect wolves include: protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms.
Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.
Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but does little harm. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation.
Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs. Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon.
Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.
Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.
Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host.
Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death.
Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in the uterus, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.
Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Although T. Thorny-headed worms rarely infect wolves, though three species have been identified in Russian wolves: Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.
The global wild wolf population in was estimated at , This has fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range as a result of legal protection, changes in land use, and rural human population shifts to cities.
Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the wolf.
As many as 4, wolves may be harvested in Canada each year. Wolves may be hunted or trapped with a license; around 1, wolves are harvested annually.
In the contiguous United States , wolf declines were caused by the expansion of agriculture, the decimation of the wolf's main prey species like the American bison, and extermination campaigns.
They have also established populations in Washington and Oregon. Europe, excluding Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, has 17, wolves in more than 28 countries.
There is extensive legal protection in many European countries, although there are national exceptions. Wolves have been persecuted in Europe for centuries, having been exterminated in Great Britain by , in Ireland by , in Central Europe by , in France by the s, and in much of Scandinavia by the early s.
The decline of the traditional pastoral and rural economies seems to have ended the need to exterminate the wolf in parts of Europe.
In the former Soviet Union , wolf populations have retained much of their historical range despite Soviet-era large scale extermination campaigns. Their numbers range from 1, in Georgia, to 20, in Kazakhstan and up to 45, in Russia.
Russian history over the past century shows that reduced hunting leads to an abundance of wolves. During the 19th century, wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River , but decreased considerably in number between and , largely due to persecution by farmers.
These wolves have moved into neighboring countries. Approximately — wolves inhabit the Arabian Peninsula.
In southern Asia, the northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for wolves. The wolf has been protected in India since The Santals considered them fair game, as they did every other forest-dwelling animal.
In China, Heilongjiang has roughly wolves, Xinjiang has 10, and Tibet has 2, The wolf is a common motif in the mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout its historical range.
The Ancient Greeks associated wolves with Apollo , the god of light and order. In the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first animal brought to Earth.
When humans killed it, they were punished with death, destruction and the loss of immortality. Both Pawnee and Blackfoot call the Milky Way the "wolf trail".
Tengrism places high importance on the wolf, as it is thought that, when howling, it is praying to Tengri , thus making it the only creature other than man to worship a deity.
In Vedic Hinduism, the wolf is a symbol of the night and the daytime quail must escape from its jaws.
The concept of people turning into wolves, and the inverse, has been present in many cultures. One Greek myth tells of Lycaon of Arcadia being transformed into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for his evil deeds.
Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece's settled, sheep-herding world.
His most famous is the fable of " The Boy Who Cried Wolf ", which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase "to cry wolf " is derived.
Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.
Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behaviour, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal.
In the New Testament , Jesus is said to have used wolves as illustrations of the dangers his followers, whom he represents as sheep, would face should they follow him.
Matthew , Matthew and Acts Isengrim the wolf, a character first appearing in the 12th-century Latin poem Ysengrimus , is a major character in the Reynard Cycle, where he stands for the low nobility, whilst his adversary, Reynard the fox, represents the peasant hero.
Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The Big Bad Wolf is portrayed as a villain capable of imitating human speech and disguising itself with human clothing.
The character has been interpreted as an allegorical sexual predator. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and Borzois.
His portrayal of wolves has been praised posthumously by wolf biologists for his depiction of them: rather than being villainous or gluttonous, as was common in wolf portrayals at the time of the book's publication, they are shown as living in amiable family groups and drawing on the experience of infirm but experienced elder pack members.
Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.
He associates the Mongolian nomads with wolves and compares the Han Chinese of the present day to sheep, claiming they accept any leadership.
As such, the novel has caused controversy with the Chinese Communist Party. The wolf is a frequent charge in English heraldry. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.
Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.
It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Gray Wolves. Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.
Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation.
As well as causing economic losses, the threat of wolf predation causes great stress on livestock producers, and no foolproof solution of preventing such attacks short of exterminating wolves has been found.
In Eurasia, a large part of the diet of some wolf populations consists of livestock, while such incidents are rare in North America, where healthy populations of wild prey have been largely restored.
The majority of losses occur during the summer grazing period, untended livestock in remote pastures being the most vulnerable to wolf predation.
A review of the studies on the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.
Wolves kill dogs on occasion, and some wolf populations rely on dogs as an important food source. In Croatia, wolves kill more dogs than sheep, and wolves in Russia appear to limit stray dog populations.
Wolves may display unusually bold behaviour when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans. Wolf attacks on dogs may occur both in house yards and in forests.
Wolf attacks on hunting dogs are considered a major problem in Scandinavia and Wisconsin. Large hunting dogs such as Swedish Elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.
Although the number of dogs killed each year by wolves is relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves' entering villages and farmyards to prey on them.
In many cultures, dogs are seen as family members, or at least working team members, and losing one can lead to strong emotional responses such as demanding more liberal hunting regulations.
Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.
The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation,   especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs.
The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Predatory attacks may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.
The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed unless the wolves are driven off.
Such attacks typically occur only locally and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase.
Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period. They may be taken primarily in the summer period in the evening hours, and often within human settlements.
Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.
Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , the Middle East and Central Asia.
Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree. This, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals.
Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally occur only on a single day.
The victims are chosen at random, though most cases involve adult men. During the fifty years up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than two hundred in southern Asia.
Theodore Roosevelt said wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill a dog.
A popular method of wolf hunting in Russia involves trapping a pack within a small area by encircling it with fladry poles carrying a human scent.
This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the odor.
Some hunters can lure wolves by imitating their calls. In Kazakhstan and Mongolia , wolves are traditionally hunted with eagles and falcons, though this practice is declining, as experienced falconers are becoming few in number.
Shooting wolves from aircraft is highly effective, due to increased visibility and direct lines of fire.
Wolves and wolf-dog hybrids are sometimes kept as exotic pets. Although closely related to domestic dogs, wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, being generally less responsive to human commands and more likely to act aggressively.
A person is more likely to be fatally mauled by a pet wolf or wolf-dog hybrid than by a dog. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of canine. This article is about the wolf within the species Canis lupus. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation.
For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene —present ,—0 years BP . Conservation status.
Linnaeus , . See also: Wolf name. Main article: Subspecies of Canis lupus. Main article: Evolution of the wolf. Further information: Origin of the domestic dog.
Main article: Canid hybrid. Main article: Wolf distribution. See also: Dog behaviour. See also: Attachment behaviour in wolves.
See also: Canine reproduction. Play media. Further information: List of gray wolf populations by country. Main article: Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology.
See also: List of fictional wolves. Main article: Wolves in heraldry. Main articles: Wolf attack and List of wolf attacks.
Main articles: Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. See also: Human uses of hunted wolves. Main article: Wolves as pets and working animals.
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved June 3, Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Online Etymology Dictionary.
Lehrman Die Sprache. New York, Dover Publications , Inc.