saluki-photoarchive.com | Übersetzungen für 'relics' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Many translated example sentences containing "relics" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. ancient Egyptian relics. 3. zählbares Substantiv. A relic is the body of a saint or something else.
Übersetzung für "relics" im DeutschEnglisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für relics im Online-Wörterbuch saluki-photoarchive.com (Deutschwörterbuch). barbaric relic - Keynes, [WIRTSCH.] barbarisches Relikt - der Goldstandard. relic karst [GEOL.]. rel·ic [ˈrelɪk] SUBST. 1. relic (object): relic · Relikt.
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Th is in line with the VCR act. In such an atmosphere of lawlessness doubtful relics came to abound. There was always a disposition to regard any human remains accidentally discovered near a church or in the catacombs as the body of a martyr.
Hence, though men like St. Athanasius and St. Martin of Tours set a good example of caution in such cases, it is to be feared that in the majority of instances only a very narrow interval of time intervened between the suggestion that a particular object might be, or ought to be, an important relic, and the conviction that tradition attested it actually to be such.
There is no reason in most cases for supposing the existence of deliberate fraud. The persuasion that a benevolent Providence was likely to send the most precious pignora sanctorum to deserving clients, the practice already noticed of attributing the same sanctity to objects which had touched the shrine as attached to the contents of the shrine itself, the custom of making facsimiles and imitations, a custom which persists to our own day in the replicas of the Vatican statue of St.
Peter or of the Grotto of Lourdes, all these are causes adequate to account for the multitude of unquestionably spurious relics with which the treasuries of great medieval churches were crowded.
In the case of the Nails with which Jesus Christ was crucified, we can point to definite instances in which that which was at first venerated as having touched the original came later to be honoured as the original itself.
Join to this the large license given to the occasional unscrupulous rogue in an age not only utterly uncritical but often curiously morbid in its realism, and it becomes easy to understand the multiplicity and extravagance of the entries in the relic inventories of Rome and other countries.
On the other hand it must not be supposed that nothing was done by ecclesiastical authority to secure the faithful against deception. Such tests were applied as the historical and antiquarian science of that day was capable of devising.
Very often however, this test took the form of an appeal to some miraculous sanction, as in the well known story repeated by St. Ambrose, according to which, when doubt arose which of the three crosses discovered by St.
Helena was that of Christ , the healing of a sick man by one of them dispelled all further hesitation. Similarly Egbert, Bishop of Trier , in , doubting as to the authenticity of what purported to be the body of St.
Celsus, "lest any suspicion of the sanctity of the holy relics should arise, during Mass after the offertory had been sung, threw a joint of the finger of St.
Celsus wrapped in a cloth into a thurible full of burning coals, which remained unhurt and untouched by the fire the whole time of the Canon" Mabillon "Acta SS.
The decrees of synods upon this subject are generally practical and sensible, as when, for example, Bishop Quivil of Exeter , in after recalling the prohibition of the General Council of Lyons against venerating recently found relics unless they were first of all approved by the Roman Pontiff , adds: "We command the above prohibition to be carefully observed by all and decree that no person shall expose relics for sale, and that neither stones, nor fountains, trees, wood, or garments shall in any way be venerated on account of dreams or on fictitious grounds.
Nevertheless it remains true that many of the more ancient relics duly exhibited for veneration in the great sanctuaries of Christendom or even at Rome itself must now be pronounced to be either certainty spurious or open to grave suspicion.
To take one example of the latter class, the boards of the Crib Praesaepe — a name which for much more than a thousand years has been associated, as now, with the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore—can only be considered to be of doubtful.
In his monograph "Le memorie Liberiane dell' Infanzia di N. Cozza Luzi frankly avows that all positive evidence for the authenticity of the relics of the Crib etc.
Strangely enough, an inscription in Greek uncials of the eighth century is found on one of the boards, the inscription having nothing to do with the Crib but being apparently concerned with some commercial transaction.
It is hard to explain its presence on the supposition that the relic is authentic. Similar difficulties might he urged against the supposed "column of the flagellation" venerated at Rome in the Church of Santa Prassede and against many other famous relics.
Still, it would be presumptuous in such cases to blame the action of ecclesiastical authority in permitting the continuance of a cult which extends back into remote antiquity.
On the one hand no one is constrained to pay homage to the relic, and supposing it to be in fact spurious, no dishonour is done to God by the continuance of an error which has been handed down in perfect good faith for many centuries.
On the other hand the practical difficulty of pronouncing a final verdict upon the authenticity of these and similar relics must be patent to all.
Each investigation would be an affair of much time and expense, while new discoveries might at any moment reverse the conclusions arrived at. Further, devotions of ancient date deeply rooted in the heart of the peasantry cannot be swept away without some measure of scandal and popular disturbance.
To create this sensation seems unwise unless the proof of spuriousness is so overwhelming as to amount to certainty.
Hence there is justification for the practice of the Holy See in allowing the cult of certain doubtful ancient relics to continue. Meanwhile, much has been done by quietly allowing many items in some of the most famous collections of relics to drop out of sight or by gradually omitting much of the solemnity which formerly surrounded the exposition of these doubtful treasures.
For illustration's sake reference may be made to the Count de Riant's work "Exuviae Constantinopolitanae" or to the many documents printed by Mgr.
Barbier de Monault regarding Rome , particularly in vol. In most of these ancient inventories, the extravagance and utter improbability of many of the entries can not escape the most uncritical.
Moreover though some sort of verification seems often to be traceable even in Merovingian times, still the so called authentications which have been printed of this early date seventh century are of a most primitive kind.
They consist in fact of mere labels, strips of parchment with just the name of the relic to which each strip was attached, barbarously written in Latin.
It would probably be true to say that in no part of the world was the veneration of relics carried to greater lengths with no doubt proportionate danger of abuse, than among Celtic peoples.
The honour paid to the handbells of such saints as St. In fact, from what we know about the way early Christians preserved the bones of those killed during the persecutions, that would be unusual.
So it would be proper for several cities to claim to have the relics of a single saint. Now for the classic argument.
Either way, the charge is nonsense. In , a Frenchman, Rohault de Fleury, catalogued all the relics of the True Cross, including relics that were said to have existed but were lost.
He measured the existing relics and estimated the volume of the missing ones. Then he added up the figures and discovered that the fragments, if glued together, would not have made up more than one-third of a cross.
The scandal was that most of the True Cross, after being unearthed in Jerusalem in the fourth century, was lost again! Certainly nothing he said indicates that.
Have there been any frauds? But in most cases, relics are either known to be genuine or there is some reason to think they may be genuine, even if complete proof is impossible.
The council further insisted that "in the invocation of saints, the veneration of relics and the sacred use of images, every superstition shall be removed and all filthy lucre abolished.
The cult of Martin of Tours was very popular in Merovingian Gaul, and centered at a great church built just outside the walls of Tours.
When Saint Martin died November 8, , at a village halfway between Tours and Poitiers , the inhabitants of these cities were well ready to fight for his body, which the people of Tours managed to secure by stealth.
Tours became the chief point of Christian pilgrimage in Gaul, a place of resort for the healing of the sick. Later, as bishop of Tours, Gregory wrote extensively about miracles attributed to the intercession of St Martin.
In his introduction to Gregory's History of the Franks , Ernest Brehaut analyzed the Romano-Christian concepts that gave relics such a powerful draw.
He distinguished Gregory's constant usage of sanctus and virtus , the first with its familiar meaning of "sacred" or "holy", and the second as "the mystic potency emanating from the person or thing that is sacred.
In a practical way the second word [virtus] These points of contact and yielding are the miracles we continually hear of". Rome became a major destination for Christian pilgrims as it was easier to access for European pilgrims than the Holy Land.
Constantine erected great basilicas over the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul. A distinction of these sites was the presence of holy relics. Over the course of the Middle Ages, other religious structures acquired relics and became destinations for pilgrimage.
In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, substantial numbers of pilgrims flocked to Santiago de Compostela in Spain, in which the supposed relics of the apostle James, son of Zebedee , discovered c.
By venerating relics through visitation, gifts, and providing services, medieval Christians believed that they would acquire the protection and intercession of the sanctified dead.
Instead of having to travel to be near to a venerated saint , relics of the saint could be venerated locally.
Relics are often kept on a circular decorated theca, made of gold, silver, or other metal. Believers would make pilgrimages to places believed to have been sanctified by the physical presence of Christ or prominent saints, such as the site of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
As holy relics attracted pilgrims and these religious tourists needed to be housed, fed, and provided with souvenirs, relics became a source of income not only for the destinations that held them, but for the abbeys, churches, and towns en route.
Relics were prized as they were portable. They could add value to an established site or confer significance on a new location. On occasion guards had to watch over mortally ill holy men and women to prevent the unauthorized dismemberment of their corpses as soon as they died.
Relics were used to cure the sick, to seek intercession for relief from famine or plague, to take solemn oaths, and to pressure warring factions to make peace in the presence of the sacred.
Courts held relics since Merovingian times. Angilbert acquired for Charlemagne one of the most impressive collections in Christendom.
Relics entered into commerce along the same trade routes followed by other portable commodities. Matthew Brown likens a ninth-century Italian deacon named Deusdona, with access to the Roman catacombs, as crossing the Alps to visit monastic fairs of northern Europe much like a contemporary art dealer.
Canterbury was a popular destination for English pilgrims, who traveled to witness the miracle-working relics of Thomas Becket, the sainted archbishop of Canterbury who was assassinated by knights of King Henry II in The motivations included the assertion of the Church's independence against rulers, a desire to have an English indeed Norman English saint of European reputation, and the desire to promote Canterbury as a destination for pilgrimage.
In the first years after Becket's death, donations at the shrine accounted for twenty-eight percent of the cathedral's total revenues.
Many churches were built along pilgrimage routes. A number in Europe were either founded or rebuilt specifically to enshrine relics, such as San Marco in Venice and to welcome and awe the large crowds of pilgrims who came to seek their help.
Romanesque buildings developed passageways behind the altar to allow for the creation of several smaller chapels designed to house relics.
From the exterior, this collection of small rooms is seen as a cluster of delicate, curved roofs at one end of the church, a distinctive feature of many Romanesque churches.
Gothic churches featured lofty, recessed porches which provided space for statuary and the display of relics. Historian and philosopher of art Hans Belting observed that in medieval painting, images explained the relic and served as a testament to its authenticity.
In Likeness and Presence , Belting argued that the cult of relics helped to stimulate the rise of painting in medieval Europe.
Reliquaries are containers used to protect and display relics. While frequently taking the form of caskets, they have many other forms including simulations of the relic encased within e.
Since the relics themselves were considered valuable, they were enshrined in containers crafted of or covered with gold, silver, gems, and enamel.
In the absence of real ways of assessing authenticity, relic-collectors became prey to the unscrupulous, and some extremely high prices were paid.
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